Альтернативы гомогенизации системы мотивирования персонала сервисных компаний
Автор (авторы):Бородай Владимир Александрович, Дудкина Ольга Владимировна
ВУЗ ИЛИ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ:Донской государственный технический университет (ДГТУ)
Альтернативы гомогенизации системы мотивирования персонала сервисных компаний
Alternatives to the homogenization of the motivation system for the personnel of service companies
Бородай Владимир Александрович
Borodai Vladimir Alexandrovich
Доктор социологических наук / профессор
кафедры Сервис, туризм и индустрия гостеприимства
Донской государственный технический университет (ДГТУ)
Дудкина Ольга Владимировна
Dudkina Olga Vladimirovna
Кандидат социологических наук/доцент
кафедры Сервис, туризм и индустрия гостеприимства
Донской государственный технический университет (ДГТУ)
Аннотация: В статье рассматривается проблема обеспечения приверженности сотрудников компании. Утверждается, что за последние пять-шесть лет изменилась парадигма мотивации персонала. Соискатели все чаще видят в работе не столько источник дохода, сколько возможность обретения личной свободы через стремительный карьерный и социальный рост, через поиск смысловой компоненты в трудовой деятельности. Работодатели, начинают осознавать наличие нематериальных факторов, коренным образом меняющих трудовые отношения. Предложены мероприятия по обеспечению лояльности персонала. Сделан вывод о том, что выбор способа самореализации сотрудника станет одними из основных факторов приверженности сотрудников, так как профессионал привержен не предприятию – он привержен профессии.
Abstract: The article considers the problem of ensuring adherence of the company's employees. It is alleged that for the last five or six years the paradigm of staff motivation has changed. Applicants increasingly see in the work not so much a source of income as an opportunity to gain personal freedom through rapid career and social growth, through the search for the semantic component in the work activity. Employers, begin to realize the presence of intangible factors, radically changing labor relations. Measures are proposed to ensure staff loyalty. The conclusion is made that the choice of the way of self-realization of the employee will become one of the main factors of employee commitment, since the professional is not committed to the enterprise - he is committed to the profession.
Ключевые слова: лояльность,мотивация, корпоративная культура, проектная деятельность, мобильность,коммуникация
Keywords: loyalty, motivation, corporate culture, project activity, mobility, communication
In the modern economic literature, there are a lot of research materials on the so-called adherence factors of the company's employees. The materials of the study include employees of different ages, sex, with different work experience. In a significant majority of the results, factors such as the content of labor, that is, its meaning, and not the working conditions, were the priority factors, as it could be assumed from the beginning. In addition, among the priorities is the competence of management and the availability of effective feedback.
Today, employers face a number of problems related to changing the lifestyle of people in general and hired workers in particular. The availability of Internet resources and social media has entailed a change in internal priorities. Under the new conditions, it should be borne in mind that "... business needs means of competent people management, including correct, valid assessment and planning of training and development of employees based on the results of the assessment" . This allows us to state that the paradigm of employee motivation has changed over the last five to six years. The actualization of changes in the sphere of staff motivation, in our opinion, is due to the fact that the goals of the employee have completely disagreed with the objectives of the enterprise. Applicants increasingly see in the work not so much a source of income as an opportunity to gain personal freedom through rapid career and social growth, while the necessary professional skills for the realization of such claims are often absent.
The time has come when service companies, as employers, must recognize the presence of factors that radically change labor relations.
In today's economy, employees of the service company have become mobile. The development of Internet technologies and mobile communications has lifted the usual limitations - now, to get a job or perform it, it is not necessary to be present at the office. Interaction with an employee working remotely has features. For example, such an employee is more difficult to attract to the avaricious ways of solving the next problems. It is necessary to set tasks in advance, and it will be necessary to control not the process of performing the work, but only the result. Many employers are not ready for this - they continue to use the same stereotypes when the employee was always in front of his eyes. Under the new conditions, "the leader is important to understand that he will have two innovative processes in parallel: the leader and his like-minded people will learn to apply new methods, and the project team members will learn to interact in a new way" .
It should be noted and such an important factor as the search for the semantic component in the work activity. The worker is now interested not in any work, but only in the one that seems to him meaningful, meets his life's attitudes. And this is another prerequisite, along with the development of mobile technologies, for the migration of workers from the enterprise to the enterprise, from city to city, from country to country.
The ratio of employees to salaries has changed significantly. Before, service companies tried to keep employees, raising salaries and extending social benefits. The employer prefers to press on the material "button" and at the present time. But the material component and money as such have ceased to be an incentive for the worker, they only corrupt it, forming dependent attitudes. The corporate culture of modern companies is formed on new principles. And it should be noted that "... solid," right "companies have the courage not to homogenize their culture" . In addition, it must be borne in mind that today for many workers, especially in large cities, a high salary is not so much an opportunity to lead a certain way of life as a way to constantly confirm their professional status.
In previous years, if the employee was generally well at the enterprise, he was not inclined to change jobs, and dismissal for him was a stress. Now the change of work is increasingly seen as a tool for career growth. At the same time, a frequent change of work was censured by society. Particularly dynamic employees were called "flyers", and from them refused not only employers, but even recruitment agencies. Now, on the contrary, long-term work at one enterprise (more than two or three years) is a sign of failure. Constantly changing the work (each time with an increase in wages), the employee seems to confirm that he is successful and in demand. "People do not want to work at a job that does not interest them. Hence, today's incentive principles are growing, when the efficiency of employees has to be bought, but this is a road to nowhere ". In fact, employers, luring each other's staff, drive themselves into the trap of a continuous search for employees who for a short period of stay at the enterprise can hardly achieve an industrial effect.
In the current conditions of business development, the employer is expected to create comfortable conditions. An important criterion for choosing a place of work is how well the service company can organize leisure for the employees, because for many of them it has become more important than work. This is normal, as long as employees do not seriously believe that the employer simply has to provide and pay for the leisure time that is required. It is also worth noting that a person all the time wants to raise the level of comfort, which means that the employee will be in constant search for better conditions.
It is necessary to note the growing market trend, in which the diploma no longer serves as a confirmation of professionalism. As a result of the development of technology, many new professions appear, so that the education system begins to hopelessly fall behind practice. The diploma has lost value, and it can no longer be used to screen out candidates when hiring. "The thing is that the market in which we all work is a self-regulating environment. Any relatively strong action will have an opposition ". On the one hand, this state of affairs gives a chance for active, sensible workers to try themselves in a wide variety of industries, but on the other hand, when choosing specialists, the number of errors inevitably increases.
Speaking of personnel as the main resource of the company, one can not help noticing that employees are increasingly aware of themselves as not employers for hiring but as partners for the employer. This is a consequence of previous trends. Partnership, of course, a great benefit, but only if the partners are equal. Unfortunately, in Russian society the inequality of the worker and the employer is maintained, and at all levels - from public opinion to legislation. The employer has much more responsibilities to the employee than the rights, and the labor law protects the second even if he does not need protection.
What conclusion can be drawn from all that has been said? Employers continue to look for employees who are no longer on the labor market - those who want to work honestly and receive money for the work that the company needs. And then they try to keep those who are already working, with the help of wages and social benefits. As a result, employers are in constant search and complain about the acute shortage of staff. Most likely, the vector of solving the problem lies in the fact that "only the variety of prepared reactions that most fully take into account the uncertainty of the impact of external factors can protect the service enterprise from the possible destructive influence of the environment" .
The traditional system of personnel motivation is known to be built on tangible and intangible forms of incentives. However, lately questions that question the priority of monetary incentives are often heard. Let's consider a problem - why it is harmful to stimulate only with money.
A person has an extremely great power of internal motivation for work, if he arranges the employee meaningfully. Those who see meaning in the work and are satisfied with its content are usually satisfied with working conditions. And often this commitment has a fairly large margin of safety: people are willing to tolerate delays in payments and work in not the most comfortable conditions. But there is no inverse relationship.
An unrelated employee will not become adherent, no matter how wonderful the material conditions of the enterprise may be to him. That is why it is dangerous to form external loyalty, investing money in bonuses, corporate events, training at the expense of the enterprise, etc., just for the sake of retaining staff. Investments in employees, like any investment, should return. Therefore, without a clear answer to the question "why do you invest in this program or employee and when you expect to receive a return?" The employer risks simply losing money by performing a customary ritual that allegedly increases loyalty, but in fact often simply corrupting employees.
Of course, the question should be considered, and what should the employer do. First of all, it is necessary to recognize the changes taking place and to find new ways of attracting employees. It is important to understand that "a self-organizing system can not be imposed on the path of development. Management of such a system can be considered as contributing to its own development tendencies of the system, taking into account its self-regulation ". And here the field of activity opens not only for business, but also for the state. In the Labor Code, the employer and the employee must be equalized (in practice this means tougher requirements for the employee). The employer must switch to new forms of interaction with the employee. Of course, any changes are risky, and there are no guarantees that they will radically improve the situation in the personnel market. However, the biggest risk is not to do anything. We consider it advisable to propose the following actions for implementation.
1) Organization of project activities instead of an indefinite labor contract. Where possible, work should be done in the form of projects. With the employees involved, the contents of the tasks, the terms of their fulfillment, the quality criteria and the cost of labor are discussed at once. Regular, i.e. Not project activities should be planned by the approaching wave method: for a week (month) forward, the execution of a task in detail, and for a more distant perspective (quarter, semester, year), define only control points. It should be understood from the outset that any employee came to the enterprise for a short time, which means that you should try to use his professional qualities to the fullest extent, concretizing the requirements. At the same time, it is reasonable to take into account that "if the personnel only executes the decisions imposed on it, developed and taken somewhere up there, then it is simply naive to expect active participation in the movement towards the company's future from it" .
Strategic planning today is ineffective: no one even knows approximately what will happen to the enterprise, the sphere of activity and the market as a whole in three to five years. However, this does not mean that you should give up big goals. Just to replace the plans should come to an idea of the optimal state of the industry, the market: you need to create a picture of the future together with employees, formulate what the business of the company should become. To do this, the company management should follow any convenient way to record changes in the business. It is necessary to maintain a knowledge base, - archives of projects, contracts with customers, descriptions of joint actions with partners, technologies, history of successes and losses, etc. In addition, it is necessary to calculate risks in advance - not only financial ones that are traditionally considered, but organizational ones. For example, the risks of dependence on key employees. A leader should always have a contingency plan. "At the same time, it is not so important which decision method you will eventually choose. It is important that the chosen solution really could move your company from a dead center and stimulate necessary changes ".
2) Infrastructure of dynamic jobs instead of the usual office. Today you should learn how to conduct business and plan work outside borders - be it the borders of an office, an enterprise or a country. Good prospects for entrepreneurs who will be able to create territorially distributed, and even virtual offices, by organizing tasks also in remote mode. Remote setting of tasks and acceptance of results, on the one hand, make the employer deeper understand his own business, and on the other hand, they allow choosing executors from a wider range than the usual two or three employees of the department sitting in the office. The most savvy employers already hold tenders among freelancers: the order is received by the one who offers the most effective way of solving the problem - is ready to execute it faster, cheaper and better.
3) It is advisable to review the organizational structure of the company for the purposes that must be achieved. The flatter the structure of the enterprise will be, the more flexible and dynamic it will become. Together with the transition to project activities, a flat organizational structure will help not to bind oneself to arms and legs beyond the limits of the present conditions with guarantees of stability.
The complex vertical structure of the enterprise creates the illusion of stability of the career ladder: it got on the bottom step - and it is possible to step up and guarantee for a long time. However, the current rate of change within industries, enterprises, professions, markets leaves only structures that can react quickly to change. "Underestimation of only a few minor features, in practice leads to the adoption of unsuccessful management decisions" . There is no time to wait for a solution to be agreed upon at all the steps of the hierarchical ladder, if the market forces to make a quick decision. A healthy structure in a dynamic environment makes itself flat, getting rid of unnecessary steps - of course, if it does not interfere with the usual hierarchical rituals.
4) Development of new technologies. Both employees and employers must constantly learn new technologies. It is not necessary to implement everything at once, but you need to know about everything. The system of education only decades later will be able to systematize many of the professions that emerged in the era of Internet technology, so knowledge today should be supported by practice. Farsighted employers develop a system for training young cadres - they select sensible students of second or third year of higher education institutions and invite them in parallel to study with the company. By the time the institute graduates, these graduates far surpass their classmates professionally, who preferred to lead a free student life, and not to receive a real profession.
5) New principles of motivation. In the development of motivation systems it is advisable to take into account that the objectives of the employee should be achieved only through the achievement of the objectives of the enterprise. At the same time, it is necessary to proceed from the fact that the employee came to the enterprise only for a while, and therefore, it is better to build relations with him as a contractor. This means that from the meeting of the potential employee and the employer, the goals of their interaction must be clearly established.
This refers to the period of work. It is advisable to determine in advance the period at which the employee is employed. Undoubtedly, it is necessary to calculate the load. The resulting period correlates with the capabilities of the employee, highlighting, at the same time, the tasks. For each task, the regulatory period and the cost of its solution are determined.
Every manager should be aware that priorities need to be identified.
These include payment for work. It should be counted how much the employee's maintenance costs will be. The difference between the cost of performing the task and the cost of maintaining the employee is his payroll fund. The more the employee has the opportunity to influence the amount of income through the achievement of specific, measurable performance indicators, the more healthy and productive the relationship will link him to the company.
We should not forget about interaction with employees. In formulating the task, ask the staff to explain how they intend to solve it. If the task is acquired by the employee incorrectly, corrections must be made before the work commences. The leader should take the work done on time, evaluate the result. At the same time, communication, exchange of information will only enrich the subject-subject interaction. The management of a service company probably takes into account that "communication is an activity of active exchange, since it implies the intention of the participants to influence each other ..." .
Harmonious will be measures to introduce additional preferences. Do not try to buy commitment to improving working conditions. It is better to provide such bonuses as "for productive madness". In the system of motivation, it is necessary to take into account such principles as respect for the right of employees to private time, the exclusion of informal relations with employees.
Often, in service companies, access to internal information resources is organized in such a way that employees can find any information, including one that is not particularly needed by them to perform tasks. It is advisable to differentiate access so that each employee has the opportunity to use only the information that is necessary for him for current work. If you need more data, he will ask them. However, it should be remembered that the basic protection of information is not in the ways of its storage, but in constant updating.
Considering the topic of loyalty, some experts believe that the emotional attachment of an employee to a service company is not always a boon. It is loyal employees who often become the main obstacle to organizational and technological changes - due to adherence to the usual appearance of the enterprise and the existing ways of interaction. Values of the service company, "the faith of employees and, therefore, their willingness to defend these values together with the leader, is directly proportional to the amount of losses for which he is ready to go" . Nevertheless, in our era of change, a service company with high staff commitment rates may lose market positions, including because of the conservatism of employees.
If in previous periods the ability of managers to manage personnel was most valued, fixing requirements in regulations and controlling their observance, now it is necessary not to complain about changed market conditions, but to learn how to use them.
Employers have more opportunities to choose employees, but, at the same time, the nature of the relationship between them has changed. Employees come to the enterprise for a shorter period, are motivated by the content of the task more than its stability, and value their freedom, including the freedom to choose the format of the workplace. "Passionarity becomes the driving force in achieving the organization's goals, a positive change in the aggregate state of the internal environment of the service company. This becomes the key to success ".
In the future, the lifestyle will be determined by the source of income, and vice versa. Those employers who will manage to take advantage of freedom of employees win, choosing the most productive among free, will win and will not try to limit it, investing in the most conservative, but lifelong loyal. In the field of intellectual services, in the service industries, freelancing will increasingly be used. Classical production, most likely, automates the most routine operations, and increasingly will resort to design practice, not limited to the labor resources of only their city, region or country. The presence of a friendly information environment and the absence of obstacles to choosing a way of self-realization will be one of the main factors of employee commitment, because the professional is committed not to the enterprise and not to the specific employer - he is committed to the profession.
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