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Исследование семейного бизнеса в Казахстане: подходы к определению и концептуальные особенности

Предпринимательство | (105) УЭкС, 11/2017 Прочитано: 375 раз
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  • Автор (авторы):
    Улжан Берикболова, Меруерт Умирзакова , Айгуль Муханова, Гульшат Мусаева
  • Дата публикации:
    13.11.17
  • ВУЗ ИЛИ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ:
    Кызылординский государственный университет

The family business research in Kazakhstan: the definition approaches and conceptual features

Исследование семейного бизнеса в Казахстане: подходы к определению и концептуальные особенности

Ulzhan Berik bolova

Улжан Берикболова

Meruert Umirzakova

Меруерт Умирзакова

Aigul Mukhanova

Айгуль Муханова

Gulshat Musaeva

Гульшат Мусаева

Кызылординский государственный университет

ulzhan.73@mail.ru

Аннотация. В статье рассматривается один из новых способов оказания поддержки развития малого и среднего бизнеса - семейный бизнес. Рассматривается его сущность, факторы развития и особенности, также основные параметры эффективного управления проблемами семейного бизнеса обеспечивающий передачу бизнеса из поколения в поколение. Авторы анализируют проблемы развития малого семейного бизнеса в Казахстане, роль и значение семейного бизнеса в экономике страны и зарубежом.

Abstract. This article discusses one of the new ways of rendering all possible assistance to small and medium-sized businesses that is a family business. Considered its essence, development factors and features are also considered as the main parameters of the effective management of the family business problems to be solved for the transfer of business from one generation to another. Authors analyses problems of developing small family businesses, conditions, in what in Kazakhstan can be recovered the traditions of family business and can be developed new family business systems, that show a big efficiency and stability in the many regions of the world, shows the way of development and features of effective management of family business, substantiate the government help to the family business.

Ключевые слова: семейный бизнес, определение, малый и средний бизнес

Key words: family business, definition, small and medium business

1. Introduction. A family business is a commercial organization in which decision-making is influenced by multiple generations of a family related by blood or marriages which are closely identified with the firm through leadership or ownership. Owner-manager entrepreneurial firms are not considered to be family businesses because they lack the multigenerational dimension and family influence that create the unique dynamics and relationships of family businesses.

Family business is the oldest and most common model of economic organization. The vast majority of businesses throughout the world from corner shops to multinational publicly listed organizations with hundreds of thousands of employees can be considered family businesses.

The economic prevalence and importance of this kind of business are often underestimated. Throughout most of the 20th century, academics and economists were intrigued by a newer, “improved” model: large publicly traded companies run in an apparently rational, bureaucratic manner by well trained “organization men.” Entrepreneurial and family firms, with their specific management models and complicated psychological processes, often fell short by comparison.

Privately owned or family controlled enterprises are not always easy to study. In many cases, they are not subject to financial reporting requirements, and little information is made public about financial performance. Ownership may be distributed through trusts or holding companies, and family members themselves may not be fully informed about the ownership structure of their enterprise. However, as the 21st-century global economic model replaces the old industrial model, government policy makers, economists, and academics turn to entrepreneurial and family enterprises as a prime source of wealth creation and employment.

In some countries, many of the largest publicly listed firms are family-owned. A firm is said to be family-owned if a person is the controlling shareholder; that is, a person (rather than a state, corporation, management trust, or mutual fund) can garner enough shares to assure at least 20% of the voting rights and the highest percentage of voting rights in comparison to other shareholders.[3]

Some of the world's largest family-run businesses are Walmart (United States), Samsung Group (Korea), Tata Group (India) and Foxconn (Taiwan).

The "Global Family Business Index" comprises the largest 500 family firms around the globe. In this index published for a first time in 2015 by Center for Family Business University of St. Gallen and EY for a privately held firm, a firm is classified as a family firm in case a family controls more than 50% of the voting rights. For a publicly listed firm, a firm is classified as a family firm in case the family holds at least 32% of the voting rights.

Family owned businesses account for over 30% of companies with sales over $1 billion. Family business is the oldest and most common model of economic organization. The vast majority of businesses throughout the world from corner shops to multinational publicly listed organizations with hundreds of thousands of employees can be considered family businesses.

Family businesses represent an important and growing part of the economy. Globally, more than 30% of large companies are family-owned. The number of family businesses in emerging markets with revenues exceeding $1 billion is growing rapidly, and family businesses will remain a vibrant force in mature markets.

In comparison with nonfamily businesses, family businesses exhibit different behaviors and performance. There are also clear distinctions between family businesses from developed and developing markets. Because of their tendency to take a longer-term and less risk-seeking perspective, family businesses from developed markets show greater resilience. Those hailing from developing markets exhibit greater growth ambitions and pursue global leadership.

2. Definition approaches.Found virtually in every sector of the world’s economies, family enterprises are the most common form of business entity in the world. Yet, their ownership, management, and family composition create a complexity that requires special knowledge and skills in order to understand them and to advise them effectively.

Indeed, perhaps one of the most discussed issues in the field today is how to define a family enterprise. There is no one definition for family enterprise, but there are a few working definitions that have evolved over the years.

On the sheet 1 we present the types of definitions ‘Family business’.

Sheet 1-Definitions of family business

Meaning

Author

Reference

1

2

3

4

1

... a business actively owned and/or managed by more than one member of the same family

The big law dictionary

Мoscow, Infra-М, 2006

2

... At least one representative of the family or kin is formally involved in the governance of the firm.

Listed companies: if the persons who established or acquired the firm from their families or descendants possess at least 25% or more of the decision-making rights mandated by their share capital.

The share capital controlled by the family is at least in the second generation or beyond.

Making a difference. The Price water house Coopers Family Business Survey 2007-2008

http://pwc.com.

3

...Association of members of the same family or relatives for maintenance of industrial, commercial or entrepreneurial operations/possession of common property

Federal law of Russia 11.06.2003 № 74-FL «Farming»

74- FL «Farming»

4

...bivalent attributes directly derived from the overlap of family, ownership, and management status

Davis and Taguri

Davis, J. A., & Tagiuri, R. (1982). Bivalent attributes of the family firm. Santa Barbara, CA.: Owner Managed Business Institute

6

...A family business is a commercial organization in which decision-making is influenced by multiple generations of a family-related by blood or marriage. They are closely identified with the firm through leadership or ownership.

-

Wikipedia

As can be seen from sheet doesn't contain the same definition of «family business». This is primarily due to a variety of types and models of family business in connection with the purposes and activities of these companies and secondly, the features of socio-economic development of each country.

In a family business, two or more members within the management team are drawn from the owning family. Family businesses can have owners who are not family members. Family businesses may also be managed by individuals who are not members of the family. However, family members are often involved in the operations of their family business in some capacity and, in smaller companies, usually one or more family members are the senior officers and managers. In India, many businesses that are now public companies were once family businesses.

Family participation as managers and/or owners of a business can strengthen the company because family members are often loyal and dedicated to the family enterprise. However, family participation as managers and/or owners of a business can present unique problems because the dynamics of the family system and the dynamics of the business systems are often not in balance.

Enterprise development is a major lever to ensure the pace of development of the national economy. In this context, the problem of the development of the family business plays a very important role. We have tried to systematize the research areas of the family business on the basis of the literature review (Sheet 2).

Sheet 2-Literature review

Edition

Author

Year

Content of the research

Oxford University Press

Kristine Bruland, Patrick O’Brein

1998

The process of transform the concept of ‘family business’ to the ‘corporate capitalism.

Oxford University Press

Hans-Peter Blossfeld, Sonja Drobniv

2001

A comparative research of issue planning of carrear in the family in countries such as Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Spain, USA, Polland, China.

Oxford University Press

Julie Hardwick

2009

Analysis of development of family business by historical dimension

Harvard Business Press

Kelin E. Gersick,John A. Davis, MarionMcCollomHampton andIvan Lansberg

1997

Analysis of typology and models of family business

Harvard Business Press

Ivan Lansberg

1999

A comparative research of issues of succession and experiences of family business in USA,

Latin America and Europe.

Harvard Business Press

Danny Miller,Isabelle Le Breton-Miller

2005

Investigation of longterm strategy and competitive advantages of family business on the example of a world famous companies IKEA, New York Times

Harvard Business Press

Harold Jarnes

2006

Analysis of influences of family business to economic development of country

Russian foreign trade vestnik

S.О.Kalendgyan

2011

Research of Russian experience of family business

Russian Entrepreneurship

D.A.Volkov

2011

Analysis stages of development and the cycles of life family business

Dashkov and Co, Moscow

T.V.Snurovozova

2010

Analysis of formation and development of family business in Russia

  1. Family business in Kazakhstan. The family business is a vital force in today’s local economy. It ranges in size from thetraditional, small, corner business to dynamic organisations employing a large numberof people. Family businesses are a mainstay in the Kazakhstan economy. To this end, theissue of family businesses is a popular topic in public and policy discussions.Generally, the bulk of family businesses in Kazakhstan fall under the SMEcategory.

The content of these discussions mainly address the unique challenges, priorities and constraints faced by the family business in today’s ever changing business environment.

All family businesses are facing a new business environment brought about by changes in consumer demand, higher standards and regulation, and increased competition.

A family business is defined as a company owned, controlled and operated by members of one or several families. There exist no local official definitions of a family business specifying the level of involvement of family members in ownership, board of directors and/or management and/or staff, relationship between business and private life or the presence of ‘familiness’.

Companies owned and operated by a single person without any employees are referred to as sole traders and may also be considered to be a family business. Companies owned by a single person, but eventually managed by employing more than one person (sole proprietor) may also be referred to as family businesses.

There are currently no legal regulations referring to family businesses. To this end, no official legal definitions of a family business exist.

As previously mentioned, most family businesses in Kazakhstan are classified as SMEs and hence fall under SME public and policy discussions. Consequently, family businesses are very much equated to SMEs. As such, there is no ‘typology’ of family businesses in Kazakhstan, but the majority (around 95%) of private business enterprises in Kazakhstan are classified as micro-enterprises, many of which are considered to be family owned businesses.

In Kazakhstan, the family business is a natural form of expression and preservation of culture family tradition. As you know, family tradition, as a Foundation of the culture of any nation, preserved her identity, especially in rural areas, which are less influenced by external or new phenomena, rather than urban settlements. Therefore, from all sectors of the economy agriculture is more traditional, influenced by the traditional commitment of the people to life in the countryside is the natural environment for the development of the family business. In Kazakhstan lives in rural areas 45% of the population. However, "we have only 200 thousand peasant and farm households, while in South Korea their 1.5 million and in Japan to 1.8 million, and in USA - over 2 million And in some regions, 50% of rural households in General, no animals, no chicken, no duck, not to mention the cows. In ASD 53% do not have livestock, in 100-200 yards is no fowl, Kyzylorda – 51%, other regions have almost identical numbers – about 40-50%, except for Zhambyl" [3].

At the conference of the Union of farmers of Kazakhstan discussed the need to increase the number of family farms.

4. Conclusion. Socio-demographic changes may contribute positively towards the development of family businesses in the future as local family sizes continue to reduce. To this end, the business will not have to support and cater for a large number of family members.

Nonetheless, such demographic changes may also have an adverse effect as new family member entrants into the family business may have to work twice as hard to support the ageing and retired family members.

Prospects regarding the public and policy framework for family businesses are a key area of discussion in today’s local economy. This is true, because support for SME development is considered to be an essential pillar in the local enterprise and industrial development strategies, initiatives and policies.

References

1.European Commission, Innovation and SMEs – Keys to Prosperity, http://ec.europa.eu/research/sme/leaflets/en/intro02.html, accessed on 10.08.2014

2.De Massis, A., Frattini, F., Lichtenthaler, U., Research on Technological Innovation in Family Firms: Present Debates and Future Directions// Family Business Review, No.26(1), March 2013, Р.10-31

3.Kraus, S., Pohjola, M. and Koponen, A. Innovation in Family Firms: An Empirical Analysis Linking Organizationaland Managerial Innovation to Corporate Success// Review of Managerial Science, July 2012, Volume 6, Issue 3, Р.265-286

4.Chastnyj i semejnyj biznes: nadezhnaja model' XXI veka. Issledovanie chastnogo i semejnogo biznesa – 2012, PwC. – С.4 from  http://www.pwc.ru/ru/private-companies/family-business/index.jhtml

5.Kalendgyan S., Volkov D. Razvitie semejnogo predprinimatel'stva v Rossii. From http://www.iep.ru/files/text/policy/2011_5/kalendjan.pdf